History of transplantation
Saving lives together
In 1954, the kidney was the first human organ to be transplanted successfully. Until the early 1980s, the potential of organ rejection limited the number of transplants performed. Medical advances in the prevention and treatment of rejection led to more successful transplants and an increase in demand.
Today, the U.S. system for organ donation and recovery is among the best in the world. As a result of innovation and continuous improvement, more patients in need of organ transplant than ever have received the gift of life.
In 1954, the kidney was the first human organ to be transplanted successfully. Liver, heart and pancreas transplants were successfully performed by the late 1960s, while lung and intestinal organ transplant procedures were begun in the 1980s.
From the mid-1950s through the early 1970s, individual transplant hospitals and organ procurement organizations managed all aspects of organ recovery and transplantation. If an organ couldn’t be used at hospitals local to the donor, there was no system to find matching candidates elsewhere. Many organs couldn’t be used simply because transplant teams couldn’t locate a compatible recipient in time.
First successful kidney transplant performed.
First simultaneous kidney/pancreas transplant performed.
First successful liver transplant performed.
Organ matching system
In 1968, the Southeast Organ Procurement Foundation (SEOPF) is formed as a membership and scientific organization for transplant professionals. In 1977, SEOPF implements the first computer-based organ matching system, dubbed the “United Network for Organ Sharing.”
First successful isolated pancreas transplant performed.
First successful heart transplant performed.
Until the early 1980s, the potential of organ rejection limited the number of transplants performed. Medical advances in the prevention and treatment of rejection led to more successful transplants and an increase in demand.
24/7 assistance to place organs
In 1982, SEOPF establishes the Kidney Center, the predecessor of the UNOS Organ Center, for round-the-clock assistance in placing donated organs.
First successful single-lung transplant performed.
Cyclosporine, the first of a number of drugs that effectively treat organ rejection by suppressing the human immune system, introduced.
NOTA and UNOS
The National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 (NOTA) established the framework for a national organ recovery and allocation system in the private sector. The goal of this system is to help ensure the organ allocation process is carried out in a fair and efficient way, leading to an equitable distribution of donated organs based on medical criteria.
Also in 1984, United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) separates from SEOPF and is incorporated as a non-profit member organization. In 1986, UNOS receives the initial federal contract to operate the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) and Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients.
National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA) passed.
First successful double-lung transplant performed.
First successful intestinal transplant performed.
UNOS begins collecting medical data on donor and transplant recipients.
First split-liver transplant performed.
First successful living donor liver transplant performed.
First successful living donor lung transplant performed.
Data and technology
In 1992, UNOS prepares first-ever comprehensive report on transplant survival rates for all active U.S. transplant hospitals.
In 1996, UNOS creates TIEDI®, a new application that collects data electronically, eliminating the step of mailing paper forms to the OPTN.
In 1999, UNOS launches UNetSM, a secure, Internet-based transplant information database system for all organ matching and management of transplant data.
In 2006, UNOS launches DonorNet®, a secure, Internet-based system in which organ procurement coordinators send out offers of newly donated organs to transplant hospitals with compatible candidates.
Learn how UNOS technology enables transplants.
UNOS helps found Donate Life America to build public support for organ donation.
First successful adult-to-adult living donor liver transplant performed.
In 2001 the total of living organ donors for the year (6,528) exceeds the number of deceased organ donors (6,081).
In 2017, the number of deceased donors top 10,000 in the U.S.
2020 sets all-time high for most lives saved by deceased organ donors.
On Dec. 17, 2021, the U.S. officially surpassed 40,000 transplants in one year, a historic first for the nation.
On Sept. 9, 2022, the U.S. reaches historic milestone of 1 million transplants.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services publishes Final Rule (federal regulation) for the operation of the OPTN.
For the first time, the total of living organ donors for the year exceeds the number of deceased organ donors.
Vascularized composite allografts (VCAs) is added to the definition of organs covered by federal regulation (the OPTN Final Rule) and legislation (the National Organ Transplant Act). The designation went into effect on July 3, 2014.
The number of deceased donors top 10,000 in the United States for the first time.
In a historic milestone, the U.S. reached 1 million transplants, more than any other country in the world.